Setting Up Drupal 7's Private File System
I just updated the docs on drupal.org and discovered that D7 will take care of the permissions.
I was working on my first Drupal 5 to 7 migration earlier today and ran into an issue with the file system I hadn't needed to define previously. Drupal 7 has both a public and private file system path that you can define. This is great for security as you can easily divide what files you want available to the anonymous public and which they should be denied access. Drupal can be used to control delivery to users with appropriate permissions.
This is great, but there aren't enough active descriptions out there of how to do this yet. The DrupalHandbook of the Drupal 7 File System is pretty clear, "Files in the private directory are not accessible directly through the web server; when private files are listed, the links are Drupal path requests," is pretty clear, but doesn't provide a practical example.
I posed the question on Twitter, "if a Drupal 7's root is
/home/drupal & the public files are in
/home/drupal/sites/example.com/files where should the Private file system path be?" Following up by stating that from purely a backup perspective it would be nice if all client files were just in
/home/drupal/sites/example.com/private and Apache is used to exclude access.
Now a quick search on Apache can give anyone directions for how to do this. Fortunately, Apache should deny access to all files in this directory and to all sub-directories unless Apache is given other instructions. So by adding the following to our Apache config for each new Drupal 7 install:
Order allow,deny Deny from all
and restarting Apache we know that no public user can access this directory or sub-directory without going through Drupal. We can easily test that users can't access this directory by adding a README.html file to the directory & verifying if you can browse to it. Mind you not everyone has root access to modify Apache instance. Fortunately, this can also be put in a .htaccess file (as per this post or this one) in your private directory to control access to your files:
Deny from all
Since so many Drupal sites assume that Apache's AllowOverride are enabled, just adding this file to your private directory should meet most site's needs.
There might be better ways to implement this, but I'm putting this forward for critique before putting it forward for the Handbook. Is there a more secure/robust way to approach this?
About The Author
Mike Gifford is the founder of OpenConcept Consulting Inc, which he started in 1999. Since then, he has been particularly active in developing and extending open source content management systems to allow people to get closer to their content. Before starting OpenConcept, Mike had worked for a number of national NGOs including Oxfam Canada and Friends of the Earth.